What is the citadel? The military operation “Citadel”.

What is the citadel? How does it differ from the fortress or castle? When and who carried out the military operation “Citadel”? All these questions can find answers in our article.
Brief history of fortifications
People began to defend their homes, villages of ancient times. Most first fortification structure can be considered a settlement – a system of earthen walls, which was erected around the settlements. Later they were surrounded by wooden palisades, later – stone walls and towers with loopholes.
What is the citadel? The military operation “Citadel”.
In the Middle Ages begin to build huge castles, with high and strong walls, battlements, bastions, redoubts and ditches filled with water. What is the citadel? When did it arise? Let’s try to understand this issue.

The fortress-citadel: What is it?
The earliest citadel there in the cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. These powerful reinforcement not only protect people, but also embodied the strength and power of the state.
To answer the question, what is the citadel, refer to the etymology of the term. Translated from Italian “citadel” (cittadella) – is a small fortified town or village. However, there is another version of the origin of the word. Some researchers associate the term with the Latin word civis “, which translates as” citizen. ”
In terms of architecture, citadel fortress called good that protects the city, or inside, the most reliable part of the castle, where residents can take refuge in the most extreme cases. Citadel usually can make defense against enemy troops alone.

What is the citadel? The military operation “Citadel”.
A landmark feature of the citadel is that it appears the latest stronghold of the defense of the city, when all other facilities and defenses are taken. Citadel must have sufficient space to accommodate not only military garrison, but needed rations (food, weapons and ammunition).
Synonymous with the word “stronghold” is an architectural term “fire.” This name can often be found in Russian chronicles XIV-XVI centuries. The term most likely comes from the word “castrum” – “castle”.
How different from the citadel fortress?
Among scientists and researchers do not have a single and coherent system of concepts concerning certain elements of fortification.
The fortress (or castle) – a general name for the whole system of fortifications established around the city, village or feudal palace. At the same time, the citadel is only part of a separate element of the defense system.
Thus, if a first protective outpost understand the position of any strength, the citadel – a last point of defense. If the city walls and outer fortifications were captured by the enemy, the garrison could continue defending it in the citadel.
What is the plan of “Citadel”?
July 5, 1943 began a massive strategic offensive forces of the Wehrmacht on the position of Soviet troops in the Kursk bridgehead. This military operation was in the name of history – a plan of “Citadel”.
What is the citadel? The military operation “Citadel”.
The task of the German headquarters was the most rapid encirclement of the enemy and their immediate destruction. However, the Red Army command has been able to organize a competent and successful defense. And, at the end of six days after the operation, the situation for the Germans was extremely disappointing. The result of the offensive “Citadel” became a complete failure for the Nazi troops.
Now you know what a citadel, and how it differs from other fortification elements. This is the most reliable and fortified part of the fortress, which serves as the last refuge for the garrison defending the city.